A view of the world from my own unique perspective

Archive for the ‘Health’ Category

Protein Folding – An Alternative To Armchair Activism

One thing that we all have in common is a fervent desire to help build a better world for ourselves and our children, one that’s free of war, pollution and major diseases. In the case of diseases, if we possess the necessary education and talent, then we can become scientists or medical researchers and contribute directly to finding cures. If we don’t, then we can still do something useful by making a financial contribution to any number of charities. Even if we don’t have the right skill set or any disposable income, we can still make a difference by becoming a blood donor or by registering for an organ donation programme.

A generation ago, charity was often a private matter, or was limited to sponsoring a Run for the Cure or other similar events. While social media has been remarkable in raising the public’s awareness of various causes – for example, the pink ribbon campaign, Movember and the ice bucket challenge – not everything it’s spawned has been useful.

Social media is largely responsible for a new phenomenon known as armchair activism, or slacktivism – a token “feel good” gesture (usually related to a particular charity or cause) that requires minimal effort (such as clicking a mouse or forwarding an e-mail), and has so practical or substantive value.

  • Women used to post a somewhat cheeky status on their Facebook wall, identifying the colour of the underwear they were wearing. This was supposed to the public’s awareness of breast cancer, but in practical, measurable terms, it did absolutely nothing.
  • More recently, people have been posting comic book characters to their Facebook wall in order to raise awareness of childhood cancer, and then assigning a different character to each friend to “likes” their post. I’m sure that some of them might even be giving themselves a pat on the back, believing that they’ve actually accomplished something.
  • Every now and then. I’ll see Facebook posts similar to the following (below). While those who post them may be well-intentioned, and share our collective desire for a better planet, it is still a colossal waste of time, effort and bandwidth.

Share This Ribbon To Fight Cancer

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Protein Folding

I’d like to share with you, an entirely new way of giving. No financial contribution is required, but unlike armchair activism, this activity actually accomplishes something. With a surprisingly small amount of effort, you can make a tangible contribution to medical science by helping researchers find cures for diseases more quickly.

Stanford University is working with medical researchers across the United States and has developed a global distributed-computing project called Folding@Home. This is a large-scale computational biology initiative that simulates protein folding on a computer.

Proteins are surprisingly versatile and can perform a lot of different roles within our bodies: they can regulate cells, act as enzymes, or function as antibodies. However, before they can do any of these things, proteins must first fold into the proper three-dimensional structure. This is usually done automatically, and the specific shape will depend on its particular sequence of amino acids. Sometimes, proteins can fold in undesired ways, and this misfolding can be a cause of a number of serious diseases. Simulating protein folding on a computer can help researchers understand under what conditions a protein misfolds and (ideally) what can be done to prevent this from happening.

The computing power required to simulate protein folding is prodigious, and is far, far beyond what is available to any university. Stanford University is assisting in this effort with their Folding@Home initiative. They are breaking down the work into millions of bite-size pieces, called work units, and inviting anyone who owns a computer to join the project. Those who sign up will use their computer to process some of these work units, and in return, act a catalyst in this massive protein folding initiative. This video explains, in a simplified way, Stanford’s Folding@Home distributed computing project.

If your interest is piqued and you’d now like to learn more about proteins, the protein folding process, molecular dynamics or the Folding@Home project itself, then visit Stanford’s The Science page.

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How To Participate

Go to Stanford’s Folding@Home web page, read the project overview, watch the video again if you like, and then click on the download button. After installing the folding program, it will download a work unit from Stanford, and your computer will begin processing it as a background task. A work unit will take between four hours and two days to process, depending on the size of the unit and the speed of your computer’s CPU. When the processing is complete, the results will be sent to Stanford automatically, a new work unit will be downloaded, and that first work unit will be credited to your account.

If you like, you can choose to use your computer’s processing power to help find a cure for a specific disease – Alzheimer’s, Cancer, Huntington’s, Parkinson’s – or you can simply select “Any Disease” from the configuration menu. As the work unit is being processed, you can enable the animated screen saver and view the protein that your computer is currently working on. Here is a sample image:

Protein Viewer image

As you can see, there is a world map behind the protein. Each white pixel on the map represents a computer that is processing a work unit at this moment. As of this writing, there are 164,101 active CPUs in this project.

Stanford’s Folding@Home project is completely voluntary. You won’t get paid for your participation, but you will experience that warm fuzzy feeling that comes with the knowledge that you will soon make a difference in the lives of those suffering from cancer, Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s and Parkinson’s. I’ve been a participant for a number of months now, and so far I’ve completed 350 work units:

If any of you would like to start a friendly competition, and post regular progress updates, just let me know. Although I do have a bit of a head start, my desktop computer is six years old, and its processor (by today’s standards) is not particularly powerful. Anyone with a fairly new computer should be able to catch up to me, and those of you who have a high-end gaming PC (with a decent video card) should breeze past me in almost no time! You can also run the protein folding program on multiple computers and have them each registered to the same account, in order to accumulate work unit credits even faster! If you’d like to keep tabs on my progress, my account name is BobYewchuk.

Join me, and let’s make a tangible and measurable contribution to medical research together. Believe me, this will be immensely more gratifying than any form of armchair activism!

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Progress Updates:

Certificate - 1000 WU

Certificate - 1500 WU

Certificate - 2000 WU

Certificate - 3000 WU

Certificate - 4000 WU

Certificate - 5000 WU

 certificate-6000-wu

A Speech About Nothing

I should probably wait until Thanksgiving to publish this article, when everyone is busy giving thanks for everything. As you may have guessed by now, I generally have a different perspective on things. Instead of joining the crowd and urging you to be thankful for the things you have in your life, I want you to be thankful for the things that you don’t have. First of all, I want you to empty your mind… think about “nothing”, and then consider and appreciate the inherent value of the absence of things.

Every now and then, I will stop what I’m doing for a few seconds, and think about how I feel at that moment. Specifically, I will concentrate on feeling nothing. This habit was precipitated by two events:

Event #1: A few years ago, I went to the Mississauga Waterfront festival, and as I was walking around, a lady handed me a free sample of Motrin (a brand of ibuprofen) and a coupon. At first I wondered if I looked like I was battling a headache, but I’m sure that she was handing out these free samples to everyone. She asked me what I usually use for pain, which struck me as an odd question, since I get a headache only once every 2-3 months. If the headache is bad then I’ll take an aspirin, but they usually disappear on their own by the next morning. Afterwards, I thought about our conversation and how she assumed that everyone must get headaches regularly and therefore needs a pain killer. I wondered how frequently other people get headaches, and if this type of pain is a normal or expected part of their daily or weekly life.

Event #2: I had a sinus infection that just wouldn’t go away. Advil offered temporary relief, but it took several trips to the doctor and three different antibiotics before it was finally gone. When the pain finally disappeared, it was my awakening. I developed an appreciation for the absence of pain. In fact, I remember being at my computer and then stopping and thinking to myself “Hey – I don’t feel any pain. Nothing hurts – my body is completely pain-free. This is amazing!”.

No one ever wakes up in the morning and is thankful that they don’t have a toothache, but this is just the attitude that I think we should develop – being aware and appreciative of the total absence of any pain or discomfort. Since these two events, I’ve been doing that regularly.

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Enjoy The Silence

A couple of years ago, I was reading an article about tinnitus, a persistent ringing in the ears that can be caused by a number of things: multiple sclerosis, ear infections, using certain antibiotics, exposure to gunshots, or using earbuds (as opposed to over-the-ear headphones) at high volume levels. In many cases, this condition is permanent. According to this article, many celebrities have tinnitus, including William Shatner, Leonard Nimoy, Barbra Streisand, Bono, Neve Campbell, Huey Lewis, Ozzy Osbourne and Sylvester Stallone. Many tinnitus sufferers will never experience silence. If you are able to, then consider yourself lucky.

Last summer, I was walking on the sidewalk beside a normally busy street, and I experienced something extraordinary. The traffic lights at the intersections on either side of me synced up, resulting in no cars between them (in either direction) and an eerie silence that lasted for 20-30 seconds. It was unexpected, and the strangeness of it all made me stop walking and just listen. I felt that this is how the community should sound – the normal sounds of nature and people that aren’t drowned out by the incessant white noise of traffic. Despite my decidedly urban surroundings, everything seemed very peaceful and soothing.

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The Space Between

“Music is the space between the notes” – Claude Debussy

Quarter RestPeople underestimate the importance of the rest in music. Without rests, music would be a cacophonous nightmare – much like the incessant roar of traffic or a dozen simultaneous conversations – with all instruments playing all the time. Similarly, there should be a rhythm in our own lives, in the form of rest and relaxation. Even God rested on the seventh day, and for almost 2,000 years, resting on the seventh day was a law in much of North America (those of you over 40 may still remember when stores were always closed on Sunday). Remove the term “24-7” from your vocabulary, and resist the urge to become a workaholic. Treat yourself to some down time; enjoy your weekends and statutory holidays; take regular vacations and leave your electronic tether at home.

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I always enjoy chatting with my high school friend Doug because he makes so many insightful observations. Last month, someone asked him what his favourite key was on a computer keyboard. He replied “My favorite key is the spacebar. Each space means a word has been completed; it always feels like progress somehow, just like walking north somehow always feels like you’re going uphill”. What would text be without a space? Just a string of letters, pushed together almost incomprehensibly, and without any visual pattern or structure. The spaces make our thoughts and ideas readable and organized. Text without spaces is the printed equivalent of crowd noise – information is contained within the individual conversations, but it’s fiendishly difficult to decipher. The image below contains the first few paragraphs of A Christmas Carol, by Charles Dickens, but with all of the spaces removed. Try reading it, and you’ll quickly discover that what is usually enjoyable and relaxing has now become a chore.

Source Code-1Now let’s move from books to computer source code. Almost every aspect of our daily lives is controlled by code. Today, most consumer items – and even most late-model cars, which, only two generations ago, used to be purely mechanical – rely on thousands of lines of instructions programmed into ROM chips. If you’re a programmer, then you understand the frustration of trying to decipher code that isn’t formatted neatly or commented thoroughly enough – now imagine thousands of lines computer source code written without any additional white space. While spaces are needed to separate commands, operations, parameters and variables, all additional spaces and blank lines are generally ignored by compilers and interpreters. They exist only for our own readability. Without white space, source code would be all but impossible to read, let alone modify or debug.

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Here is a monthly calendar, but it’s probably not your calendar because there’s nothing written on it. There are no tests or exams to study for, no meetings to attend, no errands to run, no doctor’s appointments – nothing but four weeks of unscheduled time. Imagine an entire month when you can wake up every morning, throw open your curtains and say “It’s another wonderful day in my life – every hour of this day is my own, to do as I please!”.

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Look up at the night sky – as far away as possible from the light pollution of urban areas – and gaze into the vast nothingness of space. Develop an appreciation of the enormity of the cosmos, and how insignificant we are in comparison. Whatever problems you may have are almost immeasurable when framed against the entire universe – which consists of 4.2 x 10-21% matter, and 99.999,999,999,999,999,999,995,8% space. 

Cigarette Warning Labels

In December 2010, I read that Health Canada was proposing new regulations for cigarette warning labels. These included a new series of warnings and larger accompanying photos, increasing the package space devoted to these warnings from 50% to 75%.

As a non-smoker and someone who is allergic to tobacco smoke, you’d be hard-pressed to find someone who despises smoking more than I. While I applaud every attempt to discourage smoking, one would assume that I would be overjoyed by these new proposals. On the contrary – I think that these new warning labels are a waste of time and effort. Let me explain my view, from The Bob Angle.

A few days after hearing this announcement, I was watching a news story about it. The people interviewed by the reporter didn’t seem particularly fazed or even concerned. All but one said that they would not quit or even alter the frequency of their smoking.

The smokers with whom I am acquainted share a similar outlook. They are all aware of the health dangers of their habit, and are also unperturbed. The feedback I’ve received from them has been consistent: they understand the consequences, don’t feel ashamed of their habit, will quit they’re ready, and no amount of lecturing, preaching, cajoling or scare-mongering – via well-meaning friends or graphic warning labels – is going to change anything.

While I think it’s admirable for Health Canada to once again remind smokers of the damage that smoking causes to their health, I think that their efforts should be refocused, so that this initiative will be much more beneficial to society.

Currently, the warning fall into two categories – I call them inward-looking and outward-looking. The inward-looking messages refer to the damage that smokers are doing to themselves, and the outward-looking messages focus on the damage that smokers are doing to others. So, what percentage of the current warning labels are inward-looking and outward-looking?

I decided to do a little research and examine the existing cigarette warning labels. I’d like to show you the actual photographs, but the pictures are copyrighted and (in an irony that certainly escapes me) reproduction is prohibited. I have labelled these warnings as follows: inward-looking, marked by an (I), and outward-looking, marked by an (O). Messages that apply to both the smoker and the environment are marked with (IO).

  1. (I) Cigarettes are highly addictive
  2. (O) Children see, children do
  3. (O) Cigarettes hurt babies
  4. (I) Tobacco use can make you impotent
  5. (O) Don’t poison us
  6. (O) Tobacco smoke hurts babies
  7. (I) Cigarettes cause strokes
  8. (I) Cigarettes cause mouth disease
  9. (I) Each year, the equivalent of a small city dies from tobacco use
  10. (I) Cigarettes leave you breathless
  11. (I) Cigarettes are a heartbreaker
  12. (I) Cigarettes cause lung cancer
  13. (I) Cigarettes cause lung cancer
  14. (IO) Idle but deadly
  15. (IO) Where there’s smoke, there’s hydrogen cyanide
  16. (O) You’re not the only one smoking this cigarette

Totals: 11 inward-looking, 7 outward-looking.

Now let’s look at the new proposed warning labels, using the same inward and outward-looking categorizations. These photographs are also copyrighted and cannot be reproduced here.

  1. (I) “I wish I had never started smoking.”
  2. (I) Cigarettes are a major cause of heart disease
  3. (I) Oral cancer [photo of a cancer-riddled tongue]
  4. (I) A single stroke can leave you helpless
  5. (I) “Just breathing is torture.”
  6. (O) Tobacco smoke hurts everyone [photo of an empty crib]
  7. (I) “Remember the power of the cigarette. Remember this face and that smoking killed me”
  8. (I) Another premature death [coroner pulling a sheet over a body]
  9. (O) Smoking in the car hurts more than just you
  10. (I) Vision loss
  11. (I) This is what dying of cancer looks like [black and white photo of a skeletal cancer patient]
  12. (O) Tobacco smoke? No thanks [pregnant woman with exposed belly]
  13. (O) Cigarette addiction affects generations [photo of mother and daughter]
  14. (I) When you smoke, it shows
  15. (O) Your kids are sick of your smoking
  16. (I) Cigarettes cause bladder cancer

Totals: 11 inward-looking, 5 outward-looking

Compare the totals – what I dislike about the new proposed warning labels is that the series is more inward-looking than outward-looking than the current series.

Personally, I believe that the inward-looking messages will be largely ineffective, because they will not teach smokers anything they don’t already know, and I don’t believe that any amount of preaching in the form of warnings or graphic imagery is going to cause an epiphany or even make an appreciable difference.

The smokers I know are kind and decent people, and are very respectful of others – if there are non-smokers nearby or if someone is sensitive to tobacco smoke, they are always accommodating. I also believe that this considerate attitude is prevalent among all smokers. Therefore, I think that the best use of the package space currently occupied by warning labels will be to make smokers more aware of the ways in which their habit is detrimental to others.

There is a tremendous opportunity here that I think is being overlooked – in my view, the space on cigarette packages reserved for warning labels should have an entirely outward-looking philosophy. Instead of preaching to those who are already aware of the damage they are causing themselves, let’s use the space to make smokers more aware of the detrimental effects that their habit has on others. Here are my suggestions for a new series of graphics-free etiquette statements, which will convey a new completely outward-looking sentiment: “We know you’re going to keep smoking, so in the meantime, let’s all try to get along”.

  1. Don’t smoke in front of the doorways to office buildings, malls or community centres.
  2. Always ask others if they mind if you smoke.
  3. Don’t smoke inside a non-smoker’s home.
  4. Never smoke near pregnant women, infants or children.
  5. Don’t smoke in or near children’s playgrounds.
  6. Don’t smoke while driving, unless it’s your car and you are the only occupant.
  7. Don’t throw your cigarette butts out of your car window – use your car’s ashtray.
  8. Don’t throw your cigarette butts on the ground, especially if they are still lit.
  9. Wash your hands or use hand sanitizer after smoking.
  10. Don’t smoke in wooded areas.

I think that more can be accomplished by accepting that smokers are going continue to indulge themselves until they decide it’s time to quit, that preaching and scare tactics will be largely ineffective, and until smokers make that personal decision to abandon their habit, that the cigarette package real estate should be used to help us all exist harmoniously.

The Importance Of Eye Exams

I’ve just returned from my annual eye exam. I used to go every two years, but now I’ve reached the age where my optometrist recommends that I go each year.

The exam is not too bad, and I certainly prefer it over a visit to the dentist. I must admit I’m not crazy about the glaucoma test – the one in which a machine blows a puff of air into your eyes. Despite the optometrist’s best attempts to randomize the time of the puff (and my best attempts to keep my eyes wide open and still), I invariably blink when it happens, and they don’t get a good reading – and that means another blast of air in my eye…

I’m also not thrilled with the drops they use to dilate your pupils – the effects last 4-5 hours, and during that time everything is a bit blurry, and the daylight is uncomfortably bright. I have to wear sunglasses to drive home, and until the drops wear off, I generally stay indoors.

My optometrist’s office is located inside a shopping mall. After the exam was over, I decided to wander around the mall for a while and do a bit of shopping. While browsing and strolling through the stores, I noticed that the sales girls were exceedingly nice to me. They’ve always been polite in the past, but this time they bubbly, happy and seemed to be going out of their way to be accommodating. I must admit I’m not used to this, and I wondered why this was happening. Maybe it was employee evaluation time. Then again, the economy is still depressed, so the extra friendliness could pay off in additional sales.

I didn’t actually figure it out until I got home and glanced at myself in the bathroom mirror. My pupils were still very dilated – and quite noticeably so. Aha – a eureka moment!

You’re probably wondering how these two things are connected. Dilated pupils are actually a sign of interest and desire. They are also a very accurate sign because your pupils cannot be dilated at will – it’s an autonomic response.

Years ago, in my university psychology class, I remember my professor talking to us about dilated pupils. Someone asked him why Europeans stand so close to people during conversations – uncomfortably close for North Americans. He said that this behaviour was advantageous to European merchants when potential customers were examining their wares. No matter how much they wanted a certain item, customers would at first feign indifference, and then bargain with the merchant and drive the price down as far as possible. By getting right “in their face” the merchant could determine how much a customer wanted a particular item by observing how much their pupils dilated. This reaction cannot be controlled, which gives the merchant the upper hand in negotiations.

My professor also added a humourous observation. At a party, you can always tell when an American is speaking with a European, because over time they start gliding – a discreet half step at a time – right across the room!

Advertisers use this to their advantage as well – in print ads, the pupils of models are often altered to appear more dilated than they actually are, giving the impression that this stunning, flawless, toned, athletic, and clearly out-of-your-league professional model actually desires you.

During my post-examination shopping, I was, without even realizing what was happening, sending discreet, unspoken signals to the sales girls – these fell somewhere on a continuum between interest, desire and (I’m guessing) insatiable animal-like lust.

Only 364 days until my next eye exam – I can’t wait!

Nature Doesn’t Care

Fellow Toastmasters, my name is Bob and I am not a motivational speaker. I am not going to pat you on the back and tell you what wonderful people you are, or encourage you to seize the day. Unlike many motivational speakers, I’m not going to recommend that you “step outside your comfort zone” or think outside the proverbial box – and then believe that I’ve actually accomplished something. My style is closer to Al Gore’s An Inconvenient Truth. Using several examples, a lot of data and numerous dry observations, I will speak dispassionately about the world as I see it, and then impress upon you that we, collectively, are in a heap of trouble. The end result however should be the same – a call to action and (I hope) a positive change in your lives.

Some recent news stories have stated that the current generation of kids and teenagers is experiencing record levels of obesity. Some are even developing Type II diabetes and developing coronary disease. The reports go on to say that this current generation of children may be the first in history to have a life expectancy lower than their parents.

This sounds shocking, and perhaps even tragic. However, when I heard this, I did not shed any tears for these kids. I thought to myself “This is excellent – I’m actually glad to hear that this is happening!”. Now, you’re probably thinking to yourselves “Bob – how can you say this? You’re usually such a nice guy – logical and reasonable – how can you be so heartless?”

Naturally, I don’t wish death or even hardship upon these people. Therefore, I should qualify my statement by saying that I’m not looking at the misfortunes of a few individuals; I’m looking instead at the big picture, and what this means to all of us.

My high school English teacher told our class that in order to write an interesting and compelling story, there must be some conflict. The three classic conflicts in literature are: Man vs. Himself, Man vs. Man, and Man vs. Nature. The conflict I see arising today is a variation of Man vs. Nature. However instead of an unstoppable juggernaut, we are facing an adversary whom I believe is completely neutral. On the surface, this doesn’t appear to be the stuff of great literature or even a compelling story – what sort of battle can this be if Nature doesn’t care?

In nature, well-functioning ecosystems have an inherent equilibrium. When there is a change in the environment, then it affects the ecosystem and disrupts its equilibrium; if the change persists, then eventually a new equilibrium will be established. The same thing also happens on a much smaller scale – we have our own personal equilibrium, as dictated by our habits and lifestyle choices. When we change our behaviour and actions, then we also establish a new equilibrium. This may be manifested by a change in our weight, our blood pressure, cholesterol level, or other indicators. It’s a simple cause and effect relationship – so why would there be any conflict or tragedy?

The answer lies in our attitudes. During the past couple of generations, I have noticed a shift in attitudes among many people in North America. In our increasingly litigious society, there is a growing tendency among people to avoid taking responsibility for their actions, and to blame everyone else for their misfortune.

A few years ago, an elderly lady bought a cup of steaming hot coffee from McDonalds. She got into her car, and instead of placing it in the cup holder, she wedged the coffee cup between her legs, and predictably, suffered burns when the coffee spilled. Although there was a warning on the coffee cup, she nevertheless decided to sue McDonald’s.

In April 2007 a gunman opened fire at Virginia Tech, killing 32 people. In a subsequent newspaper article, he blamed everyone but himself. He said that we could have prevented this, and now we have blood on our hands.

Finally, in the most sickening example, in Texas a couple of years ago, a man injured his infant daughter by placing her in a microwave oven. His wife actually came to his defence and said that it was the devil’s fault, because her husband was planning to become a preacher, and Satan saw that as a threat.

We seem to excel at rationalizing our poor behaviour. We can come up with all kinds of excuses in order to fool ourselves and even our family and friends. We try to explain away our bad habits, yet we don’t take any corrective action. In the end though, Nature doesn’t care. Actions speak louder than words – it doesn’t matter what you say, it matters only what you do.

For example, if you eat fast food every day, you will gain weight. If you eat it month after month and year after year, you will develop health problems that will shorten your life. This is your body’s new equilibrium. You can try to rationalize your weight gain all you like, but your arguments will not change anything. Nature doesn’t care if your parents divorced while you were a child; Nature doesn’t care if you were bullied at school and are now finding your inner peace and tranquility in comfort food.

If you play video games every day or watch movies every night on your HDTV, and if you don’t balance that inactivity with a sufficient exercise regimen, you’ll also gain weight and develop health problems. If you inhale carcinogens day after day, not only will your life expectancy be decreased, but your final years will be decidedly unpleasant as you battle lung cancer. If you abuse drugs – even prescription drugs – then you might also drop dead at 39, just like Anna Nicole Smith. Nature… doesn’t… care.

If you work hard, set high standards for yourself and take care of your health, then life will be kind to you. However, if you decide to take the path of least resistance and have little or no self-discipline, then you simply won’t enjoy the same quality of life as others. You choose your path, and Nature will simply establish the corresponding equilibrium. It’s such a simple cause and effect relationship, yet we as a society continue to delude ourselves.

When I hear that the current generation of children is facing a record obesity rate, and may have a shorter life expectancy than their parents, I am not outraged at all – this was not only expected, but in my opinion, overdue. I see this as a wake-up call – not just for these kids, but for all of us. In my view, the universe is unfolding exactly as it should, and it’s now time that we realize that we are the authors of our own misfortune. I don’t want these young people to die; I just want them and the rest of our society to wake up and start taking responsibility for their lifestyle choices!

I think the next few years will be quite interesting, as we sit on the sidelines and watch the battle of the century unfold. In our 21st century version of the classic literary conflict, Man, the great rationalizer, faces Nature, the great equalizer.

So the next time you’re ordering a large poutine with extra bacon bits, you can tell yourself “It’s OK, I’ll start my diet tomorrow” or “I’ve been working at the computer all day – I deserve this”. Tell yourself whatever makes you feel better, because in the end, your words won’t make a bit of difference. Nature… doesn’t… care.